Amir Temur Plan: Conquering the whole Central Asia icon

Amir Temur Plan: Conquering the whole Central Asia

НазваниеAmir Temur Plan: Conquering the whole Central Asia
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Amir Temur

Plan: 1. Conquering the whole Central Asia

2. Temurlane created a Great Kingdom (1386-1402)

3. Temur's political views

In the middle of the 14th century a fight for independence against Mongol's empire, which had begun in Horoson reached Movorounnahr. The main reason of the fail of Mongol's empire was the fight of Central Asian people for their freedom.

In this fight the great leader of his people and military leader Amir Temur made his great contribution. He spent all his life and activity to fight against evil and oppression, to finish the battles between the khans and Beks and to establish a strong centralized State. His name was known not only in Turon, but all over the world. He became a famous statesman and great military leader of the Uzbek people.

Amir Temur was born on April 9, 1336 in the village of Hojailgor near Shahrisyabs. His father was authoritative rich man whose name was Amir Taragay. His mother Teguna was noblewoman. So he was well educated in his family. He was strong and handsome.

As his father was a rich man he had many servants. When he was 12 years old he began to rule over them and besides that he knew how to protect' the property and how to own it. In his early years he was interested in State affairs and military activities. He spent much time to a military training and getting the secular education. When he was a fellow, he took part in the wars between the various landowners. He was courageous horse-rider and he knew military affairs very well. During one of the battles his leg and hand were wounded.

His hand fully recovered soon but his leg stayed being lame. In Europe he was called as Temurlane. His knowledge in geography, medicine, history and astronomy always astonished the scientists.

^ Conquering the whole Central Asia

In 1360 the governor of Kashkadarya Amir hoja Barlos the uncle of Temurlane ran away to Horoson to the other bank of Amudarya because he was afraid of Mongol invaders. Temur was with his uncle. But as he was a real son of his country and his people he thought about them, and decided to go back. He said to his uncle that the country without its leader is a dead body. So he returned to Shahrisyabs to defend his region of being ruined.

In 1360 the Khan of Mongol conquered Central Asia

(Movorounnahr) and Temurlane came to him to military service. For his military talent and authority the Mongol Khan Tugluk Temur appointed him as a governor of Shahrisabs before his departure to his native country Mongolia. At that time the son of Tugluk Temur Ilyaskhoja was the governor of Movorounnahr. After sometime Amir Temur began to fight against Ilyaskhoja. Then he conquered whole Central Asia. In 1370 he became the single ruler of Movorounnahr and began to unite separate kingdoms to one strong government and he achieved his aim and his ruling lasted during 35 years (1370-1405).

^ Temurlane created a Great Kingdom (1386-1402)

Amir Temur created a great kingdom in the world from the Indian River Ganga till the Volga, from the Tyan-shan till Bosfor. He built an enormous empire which included Turan, Iran, Rome, Magrib, Syria, Egypt, Iraq, Az-erbayjan, Khoroson, Jidda, and Great Tataristan. It is said that his «3 years, 5 years, 7 years" gluons military marches were well known all over the world. Before his military march to one or another Kingdom he suggested peaceful proposals and when these kings were not agree with him Temurlane began his military actions. Thanks to these qualities he differs from other Kings and governors. In the final period of his life, - Tamerlane prepared for a great campaign against China but died in February 1405 at the age of 69 in the city of Otrar. His body was taken to Samarkand and interred at the Gur-Amir Mausoleum.

We divided his activities into 2 parts

During the Mongol invaders Samarkand was razed to the ground. The memory of the invaders was expressed in the following sayings: «They came, destroyed, killed, plundered and left».

The period from the end of the 14th century to the middle of the 15th century marked a peak in the economic, political and cultural life in Samarkand. The city won world renown as the capital of Temur-lane's vast empire. Having made Samarkand the capital of his state, Temurlane had thousands of skilled artisans from the conquered countries taken to the city. He launched extensive construction. In 1371-1372, Samarkand was surrounded by a massive wall which had 6 gates and ran about 7 kilometres. A citadel was built in the western section of the city and surrounded by a wall 8 metres high.

Temurlane's residence was inside the Kok-Sarai palace, where the ruler received foreign embassadors, generals and the feudal nobility. Next to Kok-Sarai were government offices and the ar-moury. Temurlane wanted to make Samarkand a city of unsurpassed beauty. Wishing to underscore the superioty of his capital over other world capitals Temurlane named suburbian villages Misr, Damascus, Bagdad, Sultania, and Shiraz.

Temurlane built the impressive mausoleums of Shakhi-Zinda, the Bibikhanim grand mosque, the Gur-Amir mausoleum which stand to this day.

^ Temur's political views

There is a book» Temuri-Tuzukl» which describes Temur's life and became famous in the East and in the West and was translated into many foreign languages.

Nowadays the copies of this book are kept at the state libraries of Uzbekistan, England, France, the USA, Finland, Iran, India, Turkey, Egypt, Yemen and other countries.

The reason of becoming famous of the book is that there were written the ways of ruling the government and the rules of organising the army and ways of winning the battles.

This book was very important and useful for many Kings and governors in its time.

Many governors kept it in their libraries and learned the arts of leading the government, for example Boburs generation-Shah Jahan, the khan of Kokand Muhammad Ashkoi (1821 -1842), and Amir of Bukhara Abdullahadhon (1885-1910) and others ordered to their assistants to make copies of the book.

The book, which describes the life and activity of Temurlane. The book «Temuri-Tuzuki» attracted the attention of not only the rulers and governors but the political scientists and historians.

This book was translated into English in 1830, into Urdu 1845, into Russian in 1894 and 1934, into old Uzbek language in 1835 but in Temur's Motherland, in his native country of Uzbekistan it was translated into Uzbek and published in 1991.

According to the views of many scientist historians this book first was written in Turkish and the governor of Yemen and for the first time it was translated by Atturbaty from Turkish, the 12 principies, which Temurlane was guided, kept one copy.

Temurlane concretely and clearly said that during his governing period he was guided by 12 rules and thanks to these rules he achieved great success in both governing and winning battles.

The first: He followed Islamic Religion and rules of Shariat and gave a support to them.

The second: He built the policy of the state on the bases of advice and consultations of the wide sections of the population, and there is the greatness and powerfiilness of Temur.

That he didn't believe only to the power of his army but first of all he leaned on the people of his country. In this way he ruled his country.

The third rule is again consultations, activeness, and carefulness in battles with enemy These things were strict rules for Temur in the war. The fourth rule is to do all government affairs according to the law. He demanded from all his staff to follow the law very strictly.

The fifth rule is to keep good relations with all Amir and governors to be very respectful to them. Temurlane always took care of them, gave a lot of financial and moral support to them and in his turn he always was supported by them and always won difficult wars.

The sixth rule is to take care of the poorest sections of the population, give money, food, animals to them and win their respect, by this way he kept the population between hope and fear. He defended people from villain.

The 7th is to respect all scientists, educated and talented people, engineers, historians, writers. He often organised meetings and got their advice. He hated dishonest, bad behaved people.

The 8th if he decided to do some work he always brought this work to the end he learned all the experiences of his ancestors and learned the usefull; sides of the inexperience. He kept strongly his words, his promise.

The 9th Temur always was interested in the life of the common people. He respected elder people as; his brothers and younger ones as his children and; kept respectful attitude to the traditions and customs, laws and rules of each city and village. He demanded historians to give written information about the real life of the people. When he found out that some governors and soldiers made people to suffer, he punished them with justice.

The 10th, he respected all the nations Turks, Tadjiks, Arabs and others, who lived in Movorounnahr.

The 11th he kept good relationship with relatives, friends and didn't forget them even when he became a ruler. He lived in friendly terms with his friends and enemies.

The 12th he respected all soldiers even if some of them were enemies to him because they devoted their lives to the sake of the policy of their rules. But he was very cruel to the mercenaries.

Is Temur's policy important nowadays?

Temurlane's policy was very important in it's time and now it hasn't lost its importance. Now Temuriane's political views have a great importance in transition period in Uzbekistan.s


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